The Creative Launcher 2021-12-05T15:17:29+00:00 Dr. Ram Avadh Prajapati Open Journal Systems <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="" width="95" height="86" /> </a><img src="" alt="" width="99" height="96" /> <img src="" alt="" width="109" height="54" /><img src="" alt="" width="162" height="49" /></p> <p><a class="read-more" style="background: 0px 0px #e51515; border-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.34); border-image: initial; border-radius: 3px; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; box-shadow: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.34) 0px 1px 0px inset, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.13) 0px 2px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.08) 0px 3px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) 0px 3px 13px -1px; box-sizing: border-box; color: white; display: inline-block; font-family: 'Open Sans', sans-serif; font-size: 13px; font-weight: 600; height: 25px; line-height: 25px; margin: 12px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 10px; text-decoration-line: none; text-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.15) 1px 2px 0px; transition: background 0.17s ease 0s; vertical-align: baseline;" href="">Welcome </a><span style="background-color: white; font-size: 14px; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="background: white; font-size: 10.5pt; line-height: 115%;">The Creative Launcher (2455-6580) is An International, high quality, peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes articles in all areas of English language and literature. The main objective of the Journal is to discuss global prospects and innovations concerning major issues of literature, to publish new analyses and the studies of African American Literature, American Literature, Art, Aesthetics, Myth, Culture and Folklore, British Literature, Canadian Literature, Children’s Literature, Commonwealth Literature, Comparative Literature, Cultural Studies, Cyber Literature, Dalit Literature, Diaspora Studies, Disability Studies, Disaster Literature, English Language Teaching, Gender Studies, Post-Colonial Literature, Indian Literature in English, Pakistan English Literature, SAARC Literature, Linguistics, Science Fiction and Cultural Analysis and Translation Studies and Literature and theory of literature. The Journal seeks to stimulate the initiation of new research and ideas in English literature for the purpose of integration and interaction of international specialists in the development of literature as interdisciplinary knowledge. It particularly welcomes articles on research in various fields of English Literature and language. The journal encourages critical rigour, fresh insights and creative writing skills to its readers and writers. Research articles from all areas of English Literature, English Language Teaching, Short-Essays, Book-Reviews, Interviews, Poems, Short-Stories, Translated Works and Monologues etc. are entertained in this journal. The highest priority is given to research reports that are specifically written for English Literature and its allied areas. The audience is primarily researchers and academicians in various fields concerning English Literature and Language. It has received a wide range of audiences and readers throughout the world.</span></p> <p><span style="background-color: white; font-size: 14px; text-align: justify;"> </span></p> Applicability of Ancient Myths and Cultures used in the play Yayati 2021-11-03T17:02:42+00:00 Dr. Uzma Khanam <p>Girish Karnad was among the most prolific playwrights of modern India. He took birth in the reign of British India, witness the independence of our country, learnt from the motherland of English, came back to his motherland only to become English poet, but ended up writing plays only in his native language, using the core of Indian origin in his pen. He had the best farsightedness of life which he projected very sharply in his plays. Each of his plays are enriched with the diverse forms of Indian cultures and myths. Although, it has never been mentioned of him studying psychology in a professional manner but his plays has always has the capacity of comforting or at least focusing the flaws of mankind. The main objective of this research paper is to highlight the ancient myths and culture used in one of the Karnad's play <em>Yayati</em>, and its relevancy in the present scenario.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Save the Indigenous Teaching and Learning: ELT 2021-11-03T17:29:00+00:00 Dr. Giri Prasad Vidudhala Mr. VDI Rajiv Raj <p>This paper explores not only the care of the indigenous in nativity of teaching of English Language and also advising the methods for language learners and language teachers, the methods where all learners do have some access for cognitive knowledge of intellectual development in language. The learners according to GT method to use their cognitive faculty to memorize grammatical rules, vocabulary lists, translation and reading comprehension and many more. This paper doesn’t explain all the rules but principal characteristics of GT method, it suggests GT method importance. It unravels the focus learning through cognitive system which is a real thinking as native speakers do. The word <em>indigenous</em> here meant<em> the nativity of EL</em>, the teaching of educated native speakers of ELT which second language teachers cannot faithfully do the same but there are absolute qualities can be gained from native speakers learning. There are hundreds and thousands of software technologies that teach English Language. Information and communication technologies (ICT) refer to technologies that provide easy access to information through telecommunications. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums. Learning EL through ICT is a half-backed knowledge. &nbsp;All developed countries they setup and use digital learning. Here thanks to technology but if the curriculum is not designed with the standard approaches and the methods of ELT, surely a wrong learning enter! Even it leads to kill the language standards due to unnecessary globalized jargon. Globalization is one of the many terms virtually quotidian in present times discourse.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 From Alienation to Assimilation: Exploring Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake 2021-11-03T17:40:13+00:00 Dr. Padmini Sahu <p>Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel <em>The Namesake</em> is a kaleidoscope of the different shades of the individual relationships, the conflicts and confusions of the characters along with the cultural dilemma of the immigrants. The novel explores the diasporic conflict of the hyphenated identities of Indian-Americans. The immigrants in the novel live a confused existence as Indian-American, American-Indian and Overseas-Born-Indian. Being a foreigner is a sort of lifelong pregnancy for Ashima- a perpetual wait, a constant burden and an on-going responsibility. The novel focuses on cross-cultural conflicts, trauma and aspirations of the two generations of expatriates, Ashoke and Ashima who are not inclined towards getting Americanised, while Gogol and Sonia, the second-generation migrants face the intense pressure to be loyal to the old world and fluent to the new.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Magic Realism in African Literature: A Study on Selected Works of Ben Okri and Nadine Gordimer 2021-11-03T17:50:06+00:00 Mahesh Chandra Tiwari <p>This article examines the evolution of magical realism as a narrative style used by African writers throughout the transition period, and how it became increasingly suited to African literary sensibilities at the time. At the same time, magical realism relies heavily on African oral traditions, serving as a site of convergence for black and white writing under apartheid, as well as exemplifying the synthesis of Eurocentric Western logic and African tradition. This article discusses the possible origins of the proliferation of African texts embracing this narrative mode in the immediate aftermath of apartheid's demise, as well as the possible reasons for the gradual abandonment of magical realist narrative strategy in the post-millennial era, while discussing magic realism in relation to Ben Okri's and Nadine Gordimer's post-apartheid novels. As a consequence of the short cohabitation of the two literary forms in African literary history, African magical realism works will be located at the intersection of celebration and disillusionment literature.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gender Discrimination and Marital Discord in Shashi Deshpande’s The Dark Holds No Terrors 2021-11-05T03:47:25+00:00 Ayesha Tasnim <p>Gender discrimination is a universal issue that results in women’s predicament. From time immemorial women become victims of gender disparities. It starts with one’s own family. The present paper explores the crisis of gender discrimination and marital discord in the life of the protagonist in particular and Indian women in general.&nbsp; As a Child Sarita, the Protagonist tolerates gender discrimination and as a grown-up after her marriage due to marital discontentment. In this paper, many gender issues are explored which in due course of time decrease the moral spirit of women and make them weak and subordinate.&nbsp; Although Sarita is an educated and economically independent woman still she silently suffers. When it crosses limits she raises her voice to assert her self-esteem.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Telescopic Vision of K.V. Dominic’s Poetic World through Cataracts of Compassion 2021-11-05T03:55:23+00:00 Dr. Dharmendra Kumar Singh <p>An attempt to present the poetic world of a particular poet particularly based on a particular volume is thought to be a herculean task. Can it be possible? is the question. Generally, the poetic world of a poet is known or understood with the help of the close study of his all works where his all feelings, passions and emotions are reflected vividly and variously. There is a saying in this world that possibility resides in impossibility and hither is our ray of hope as the work of a poet is the result of all the generative energy that he possesses. Time, place and position are also the dominant deciding factors in shaping the poetic world of a poet .None can prevent him from the above said things. The other thing is that feelings, passions and emotions are the recurring things that recur in each and every work of a poet in various forms. This is why, here, a little step is taken to have a telescopic vision of his poetic world through his particular anthology <em>The Cataracts of Compassion.</em> Its possibility is to be seen in an affirmative way as without any major distinction the mind, psyche and tendency of a poet is present in his all works. Miniatures always present the giants i.e. they attribute the real and ubiquity of a poet is known to all so there is no harm to have a telescopic visions of Prof. Dominic’s poetic world through the <em>Cataracts</em> <em>of</em> <em>Compassion</em>.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Reading Skill: A Key to the Development of Language Acquisition 2021-11-05T04:12:25+00:00 Ramesh Chandra Pradhani <p>Every human being more or less wants to express something to somebody for which one needs a language. Some expressions of poets, singers, artists, writers, social workers, leaders, politicians and philosophers are placed in printed materials - newspaper, periodicals, journal, magazines and above all books by means of language for future generations to come. Moreover, the same thing in same language can be expressed by different people in different ways in various places. Thus the scope of language gets enlarged day by day coming contact with other languages as the river gets widened running continually over years accompanied by other small drains, rivulets etc. Needless to say, unfathomable is the depth of language that cannot be measured in a single day or effort. The vast arena of language may be cultivated by the habit of constant reading which involves both speaking &amp; listening skills. By reading one move in the world of language. One cannot acquire the use of language unless and until one is exposed to it. It is the style of language that helps the speaker to attract and win everybody’s heart. This paper examines how language skills are cultured by reading activity. It also explores possible ways of how reading skill, firstly; enriches the readers with profound vocabulary, secondly; enables them to use language with clarity, accuracy and fluency, and last but not the least; makes the speakers well communicative, interactive, and economic in effective use of language. Lack of language creates a communication gap and this small gap invites a massive misunderstanding which very often spoils unity, integrity, brotherhood among the users, and after all makes human beings dumb and dull.&nbsp;</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Dynamics of Binodini’s Character in Rabindranath Tagore’s Chokher Bali 2021-11-05T15:36:02+00:00 Prerna Raj <p><em>Chokher Bali</em> is considered as one of the best-known works of Rabindranath Tagore. The novel is a character-based work which is completely progressive in its essence. Binodini, the protagonist, is personification of intellect, grace, femininity, commitment and skills. She is a woman of desire in spite of being a widow. She is dreamer but at the same time deeply attached with her roots and reality. The dynamics of her character, the subtle nuances which she depicts are the epitome of aesthetic development in a character for the need of the plot. She rebels and out rightly rejects the paradigm of widowhood set by the patriarchy. The way Tagore portrays her character even the negatives, the flaws, the shortcomings in Binodini, appear to be very natural and spontaneous. Widowhood is all about seclusion and loneliness and the character of Binodini is all about debunking and shattering the myths related to widowhood. This paper is an attempt to focus on the artistic character of Binodini and realism attached with her aspirations.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Identity Crisis in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go 2021-12-05T15:17:29+00:00 Deepa Dr. Parul Tyagi <p>In <em>never Let Me Go,</em> the cloned protagonist proves unable to resist a fate that is finalize by others and 'completion' results in their inevitable death. The uniqueness of theme of organ donations provides the focus of the clone narrator's story. We might expect a showdown scheme where the clones discover their true identity. However, Ishiguro refuses to meet such expectations. Kathy H. and her friends Tommy and Ruth are consumed with questions about themselves and their place in the world. The children attain a sense of identity through their treasured collections, creativity artwork and delicate social structures. Part of their identity therefore always remains a mystery to them and this adds their confusion about who they are and what is their place in the world. No one appear exempt from the harsh reality offered by the ambiguity of human identity.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 East-West Dichotomy in Orhan Pamuk’s The White Castle 2021-12-05T15:17:18+00:00 Soumya Samanta <p>Orhan Pamuk’s <em>The White Castle</em> is a historical novel that is set during the Ottoman reign. The novel presents the metaphysical opposition of East and West, self and the other, intuition and reason, mysticism, science and global and local, and the recurring issues of conflict of civilization, identity crisis, and cultural variations. Orhan Pamuk as a postmodern writer tries to bridge the gap between the East and the West through his writings. Although Turkey is at the backdrop in most of his novels, the treatment of themes is universal. The paper proposes the theory of Orientalism by Edward Said, which represents the encounter and treatment of the "Orient." The concept of identity expressed by Pamuk in his wide range of novels also can be related to the “Orient” and “Occident.” The culture of the East has always been portrayed as the binary opposite of Europe in history and fiction. The loss of identity of the East reflected in the works of Pamuk is an outcome of the clash between East and Europe, further leading to chaotic contexts and dilemmatic protagonists. Individuals unable to choose between the traditional self and the fashionable West mourn the lost identity of a country and their self.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Formation of Identity through the Presentation of Motherhood in Tahmima Anam’s A Golden Age 2021-12-05T15:17:09+00:00 Rukunuddin Shaikh <p>Tahmima Anam is the first Bangladeshi novelist in English who draws international attention to the Liberation war of 1971 of Bangladesh through the publication of her first novel <em>A Golden Age </em>in 2007. The Liberation war is replete with the incident of genocide, rape, inhuman torture, abductions etc. The war has instilled a kind of horror into the psyche of Bangladeshi people. During the war the Muslim majority of people of East Pakistan are in an acute identity crisis. Pakistan was formed on the basis of religion Islam. But even religion cannot unite the two wings of Pakistan. Therefore people are in an identity dilemma between religion and nationalism. They are also in a fix as to whom to support- East or West Pakistan. Anam captures this particular complexity in her novel through the protagonist Rehana Haque. In this paper, I will bring forth the complexity of identity formation through the depiction of motherhood of Rehana Haque from feministic standpoint.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Study of Marginalization of Women in Rama Mehta's Inside the Haveli 2021-12-04T15:16:20+00:00 Krishna Murari Shukla Dr. Ram Prakash Pradhan <p>In the social structure of this world, there are various forms of people like class, community, caste, religion or gender, suffering from the dominated sensibility of social, political, economical or ethical values but their exploitation has been general in the tendency of common perception. The close observation of these people is categorized under the head of marginalization. Marginalized people are often defined socially, politically, culturally and legally deprived of their ‘rights’ as human beings in every sphere of life and cultural society. The various groups of people, living or surviving on the verge, can be assessed with their caste, class, religion or gender differentiations. In this regard, women’s position in the society and family has been one of the most considerable issues. The condition of women whether as masters or servants has equally been dominated and deprived of rights in the men dominated society. The present paper explores the marginalization, suppression, deprivation, gender inequality and feminine sensibility of women within the patriarchal system of the society in the novel <em>Inside the Haveli.</em></p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Role of Motivation in English Language Learning: A Real Challenge 2021-12-04T15:16:11+00:00 Dr. Mirza Sibtain Beg <p>One of the most important Laws of Learning is the Law of Readiness. It is a big challenge for the teachers to kindle a strong desire in pupils to learn English Language swiftly which is not their Native Language. Motivation plays a very important role in the process of learning a Language. Intrinsic Motivation is a kind of motivation that comes from inside. Extrinsic Motivation emanates from external pressures such as essential for job or any other obligation. The differential success of ESL learner proffers us to examine the strategies utilized by successful Language Learners. The teachers can help students improve their performance laying more focus on learning strategies which proved fruitful. Language teachers can effectively teach by virtue of developing interest in students for Language Learning. Passion is very key to Motivation. Passion establishes a link between intrinsic goals and aspirations. Successful Language Learning can be achieved by means of passion. The role of ELT teacher is to devise ways and means to connect to this Passion. Learners need quality instruction, feedback, interaction and chance to have progress and to maintain Motivation for Language Learning as well. A good instructor must utilize the sources of Intrinsic Motivation to establish a connection with Extrinsic factors that can be brought to a classroom setting. It is also very significant for instructors to identify student’s motives and needs etc and thereby evolving proper motivational strategies. Motivation may erode during designing a Language course. The Teachers have to bear in mind that Learners differ in interest expectations from one another.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Representation of the Namasudras in Literature 2021-12-04T15:16:03+00:00 Joylal Das Dr. Kulanand Yadav <p>In Bengali Dalit literature, the Namasudra writers and poets play a crucial role in combating the complete social margsinalization of Dalits, their movements, iconography, experiences, and worldview. According to Manohar Mouli Biswas, “It is a counter cultural movement that has been aiming to undo the age-old caste ridden oppressions against the dalits by representing their lives, deprivations, struggles, histories and promoting their culture and liberation through literature” (Biswas XXV). There have recently been many books written by Dalit Namasudra authors, some of which have been published in English. Using these archives and texts, we may now see the Dalit Namasudras from a different perspective, one that previously would not have been possible through the use of traditional historical archives and writings. Among them mentionable are Manohar Mouli Biswas’s <em>Amar Bhubane Ami Benche Thaki</em> translated as <em>Surviving in My World</em>, Manoranjan Byapari’s <em>Itibritte Chandal Jiban</em> translated as <em>Interrogating My Chandal Life</em>, Dr. Manoranjan Sarkar’s <em>Ekjan Daliter Atmakatha,</em> Jatin Bala’s <em>Sikar Chenra Jiban</em> and so on. This article attempts to rebuild the alternate history of the Namasudras by deconstructing the standard material on the subject using historical and literary analysis.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cultural Identity and Identity Crisis in the Selected Novels of Githa Hariharan 2021-10-30T16:12:38+00:00 Dr. Leena V. Phate <p>Githa Hariharan is a successful feminist writer. Her first novel The Thousand Faces of Night (1992) won the prestigious Commonwealth Writers’ Prize for the best first novel in 1993. Her novels portray the struggle of female characters for their identities which are challenged by caste, religion, violence and nationality. The present paper is an attempt to examine and review the way Hariharan’s women characters encounter the orthodox roles and identity forced on them by the male-dominated social order as they try to rebuild a modern self-identity for them. For this purpose, her novels&nbsp;<em>The Thousand Faces of Night</em>,<em> The Ghost of Vasu Master </em>and <em>Fugitive Histories&nbsp;</em>are thoroughly studied in this paper.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Life and the World Around: Theme of Subjugation of the Downtrodden and Approaches in Indian culture as Revealed in My India 2021-10-30T16:42:03+00:00 Dr Archana K. Deshmukh <p>This paper is a descriptive work and is an attempt to study Jim Corbett’s approach, as an Indo-Anglian writer, towards the theme of caste related subjugation in the colonial era. Jim Corbett is one of the few Anglo-Indian writers, who through his non-fictional narrative reveals minute observation of the customs, traditions and rituals of Indian culture. Short stories based on real-life characters offer, as one of the major themes, a glimpse of the suffering and subjugation and taboo associated with the life of the untouchables. He understands the role of caste system in India and is aware of its relevance in shaping the destiny of a person. Corbett’s concern is not only class and caste conscious, but also socially relevant and the delineation of the anguish of the underprivileged is poignant and significant. He is sensitive towards their struggle and gives the message of equality and humanity. He is a moralist, who preaches the lesson of humanity.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Inspiration to Womanhood through the poems of Kamala Das and Maya Angelou 2021-10-30T17:54:02+00:00 Ms. Padma Ragam. S Dr. Jennifer G Joseph <p>History reveals that the girls and women had been kept in darkness from ages. They had no right to enjoy their fundamental rights. Women had been treated as inferior to men. They were tortured, suppressed, humiliated, and sexually harassed in all the fields. They were, not respected, and given importance and marginalized politically, economically, socially, culturally and emotionally. The condition of women had been very pathetic and, where rape, female foeticide, infanticide, dowry deaths and various kinds of exploitation were happening almost every day. The women were considered as a sexual object and to take care of the family over the years in the history. But gone are the days, where women were known by her husband’s name or by the name of the family. Now women are educated equal to men. Women can get empowered in their own choices by selecting their own jobs, own life partners, own places to study, and professions etc. They are working in all the fields and in every profession. They are in good positions in their work places. They are recognised by the society. They achieve many things and do wonders in their work places. They have become policy makers in their work places. They are recognised and respected in the family since they are working and earning money and taking care of their family. You can find women as president, chief minister, prime minister, director, principal, pilots, astronomers etc. Women have freedom to make their own choices. And now they have so many facilities announced by the governments where they can enjoy their freedom. Since there are special laws relating to women empowerment in favour of women, they feel free to enjoy their fundamental rights. This paper throws light on how women were leading their lives in the past and how they are leading their lives in the 21<sup>st</sup> century through the selected poems of Kamala Das and Maya Angelou. Both have been marginalized and subordinated, but difference lies between the way, they were victimized.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Quest for Revolt in Joothan by Omprakash Valmiki 2021-10-30T18:02:31+00:00 Prof. S. Ranga <p>Omprakash Valmiki, like other writers of autobiographies, articulates the Dalit confrontation in his renowned story, <em>Joothan</em>. He describes every aspect of his disturbing social experiences, unfolding his complete life. Thus, Omprakash Valmiki's <em>Joothan</em> is about the voyage of Dalit discrimination and social boycott. The Valmiki kin is under pressure for schooling and position in the social order. In the meantime, it is also the fairy-tale of a Dalit family unit in search of self-esteem and identity in the Indian Hindu society. Omprakash Valmiki portrayed his life as an untouchable and Dalit in the newly self-governing India. The tale of <em>Joothan</em> refers to scraps of food left on a plate; this is meant for waste and animals. India's untouchables have been obligatory to acknowledge and eat leftovers for centuries, and these terms encompasses the pain, humiliation and poverty of the group of people enforced to survive at the underneath of India's societal pyramid. Although untouchability was abolished in 1949, But Dalits is being unrelenting to face prejudice, economic deficiency, aggression and mockery. Even after attaining Independence, the Dalits had to struggle a long time to get education; <em>Joothan</em> takes it seriously. Valmiki shares his daring resist to escape a prearranged life of steady physical and mental agony and his transformation into a speaking subject under the influence of the great Dalit political manager, BR Ambedkar. An article of the long silenced and long denied sufferings of Dalits, Joothan is a key role to the archives of Dalit history and a proposal for a radical transform of humanity and human consciousness. Dalits are being unrelenting to face unfairness, economic deprivation, hostility and ridicule. This paper is trying to portray the Quest for Revolt in Omprakash Valmiki’s <em>Joothan</em>.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rejuvenating Karayala: An Endangered Folk Theatrical Form of Himachal Pradesh 2021-10-31T04:05:04+00:00 Manoj Thakur <p>This paper deals with&nbsp;<em>karayala</em>, a folk theatrical form of Himachal Pradesh. This form is basically a ritual, performed in the name of a local deity called&nbsp;Biju/Bijeshwar. It is a night long ritual&nbsp;consisting of minimum three and maximum four episodes (<em>swaangs</em>) and each one is followed by a musical interlude comprising singing and dancing.&nbsp;<em>Karyala&nbsp;</em>is an impromptu theatrical form. There are no women&nbsp;actors and only men play female roles. Surprisingly, till date women are not allowed to play female roles. It deals with range of themes and most of them aim at reforming society by employing techniques like mimicry, caricature, satire, paradox, pun and word play. The paper seeks to introduce&nbsp;<em>karayala</em>&nbsp;to larger audience. In the crisis of the present context and particularly owing to onslaught of media multiplicity, we have lost&nbsp;<em>karayala’s</em>&nbsp;past as none for a long while cared to document it due to urbanization, people’s indifference and media charged environment that has threatened its existence. At present it is alive in people’s memory and is necessitated by rituals to avert divine wrath; nevertheless, its space stands largely invaded by media today. The future of this folk theatrical form seems bleak&nbsp;unless we take effective measures to revive/ retrieve it.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Reformation of Culture through Language and Translation 2021-10-31T04:12:43+00:00 Sneha Kannusamy <p>This research paper sheds light on the reformation of culture through language and translation. It introduces the definitions of language, culture, and translation.&nbsp; It further explains the relationship between culture, language, and translation concerning the scholarly papers. The phenomenon by which the culture is built by different languages linking to the way we emote feelings and thoughts, which is achieved through the process of translation. This paper shows the study of how the culture gets reformed through language and translation getting even more transformed structurally in the upcoming generations. The reformation is seen not only in non-fictional works but also traces the fictional plays and novels that are cited with authentic references. Limitations such as not translating the words with accurate meaning may give the pessimistic approach but how it promotes people in learning varied concepts of language getting introduced to vast culture is dealt detail. This paper also deals with cultural refinement through linguistic anthropology and postcolonialism. This study shows the level of consciousness of people towards language and translation giving allowance to get introduced to particular cultures that promotes unity with examples. The language reflects culture, providing the study of refinement in language mirroring the culture, hence proving literacy is directly connected with the culture in education. The translation is the best influencer taking its turn of shifting people from one culture to taste another. To build up a valid society, the need for inculcating in-depth knowledge of language and culture through translation helps in building the culture for posterity.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Indian Cinema: Making Departure from the Stereotypical Presentation of Women in Nuptial 2021-10-31T04:20:09+00:00 Dr. Priyanka Kulhari <p>In the late 20<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> century various movements took place which challenged the stereotypical notions of gender in society. #MeToo movement gave a momentum to the society where people started talking about any kind of violence, sexual assault and harassment against women. Many government policies and laws were framed and implemented to provide equal opportunities to women in every field. Vishakha Guidelines and Internal Complains Committee are made mandatory at work place and education institutions to assure a safe and healthy environment for females. Now the issues brushed under the carpet for long have been brought into light. Issues which were considered taboo even to talk about are now discussed on public forums and academia, penned down in literature and projected in media and cinema. Women and their concerns and point of views found space in popular cinema and were acclaimed too by the critics as well as spectators. Bollywood has made deviations from the stereotypical portrayal of women and broke the silence on issues like sexual consent and female sexuality. It also showed the role of woman in marriage and how it’s changing with woman becoming economically independent and realizing her real worth. The present paper will deliberate on the institution of marriage and the role of woman in it in the Indian society especially in the context of Indian cinema. It will discuss recent Indian cinema which came with stories in which decision-making power has been exercised by women in a nuptial and consent of a girl in a marriage has been considered. Gender roles in a marriage will also be analysed which has been shown deviating from the stereotypical notion especially in the movies Ki &amp; Ka and Tumahari Sulu. It will include the movies which have at the centre the idea that the courage of a woman can put a full stop to the deep-rooted patriarchy of centuries in our society. The paper will include only popular cinema made in Hindi language film industry known as Bollywood in the last decade like Dil Dhadkane Do, Badrinath Ki Dulhania, Secret Superstar, Parched and Tumhari Sulu.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Theme of Protest and Freedom in Cry, the Peacock 2021-10-31T04:27:41+00:00 Prof. Dr S. U. Chavan <p>The conflict between social institutions and individuals is a complex and perplexing issue for many scholars. While reflecting on this issue, some scholars propagate the privilege to individuality, the others to the social institutions. Many scholars consider it as a matter of mutual coordination and interest. The need for a relative space for an individual and the requirement of the social institutions for regulating control over an individual’s uncensored wills are equally important. However, safeguarding or maintaining the margins of both entities is complex work. Regulating uncensored wills or reducing excessive encroachment of institutional authorities is a difficult task; it needs to be addressed with a scientific approach. The Indian social system is conservative and has been maintaining its dominance over the women’s class from the time unknown. The society, after allotting all the privileges to male members, refuses to consider women as individuals, having space and freedom. It expects women to be timid, docile, submissive and obedient. As a result, they feel tyrannized and experience untold sufferings. When the patriarchal system becomes over oppressive, it leads women to absolute confinement; the life of complete closure is highly disappointing and frustrating. The forces that obliterate their rights include gender discrimination, marriage-system, orthodox traditions, customs, rituals and class status. A woman is born with a destitute to experience a collision with the subjugating elements in her life and while wrestling against it she has little success. She goes through a perpetual war against the controlling institution while creating a space for her individuality and freedom. The factors like these rob women characters of happiness and advantages and lead women to live an insignificant life, full of suffering.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Patriarchy and Inequality in Bharti Kirchner’s Sharmila’s Book and Pastries: A Novel of Desserts and Discoveries 2021-10-31T16:41:52+00:00 Dr. N. Sumathi <p>Literature produced by men was a prejudiced one and focused mainly on the might of men and feebleness of female members. This was resisted by women writers and they started shattering the prejudiced views of men and gave a proper solution to it. Moreover, they violated the sanctities of women as mere service renders and broke the stereotyped images of women as the classical Sita or Kannagi who were projected as submissive partners having no identity of their own. It is only through the writings of women writers, the real identity of the women was recognized and they became equal partners at home and in the society. This awakening was highly instrumental in turning the dark pages of the history of literature and spread brightness and happiness everywhere. At present, gender inequality has gained global attraction and this has resulted in the production of vast literature.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Inconspicuous Relationships between Language Acquisition and Learning 2021-10-31T16:47:27+00:00 Mr. V. Heymonth Kumar <p>This research paper throws light on the inconspicuous relationships between language acquisition and learning. It introduces the meanings of language acquisition and learning based on the researches of Pritz Hutabarat and Imran Hussain. Tools for language acquisition, such as movies, games and social networks, are explained clearly in this research paper followed by the definitions of language acquisition and its characteristics. Tools of language learning, such as classroom education and activities, are explained in detail along with the definitions of language learning and its characteristics. These mentioned parts have the testimonials of Fernandes Arung, Aladdin Assaiqeli, Yolanda A.Rankin, Rachel Gold, Bruce Gooch, Hosni M.El-Dali, Parlingdungan Pardede, Eva Alcon, and Jenny X. Montano-Gonzalez. Behaviourist Theory, The Innateness Theory, Cognitive Theory, The Motherese Theory, and Socio-Cultural Theory are the theories of language development that present in this research paper. To prove these language developmental theories, Entisar Khalifa Aljoundi and Dr. Md. Enamel Hoque’s research findings based on the experimental findings of Edward Thorndike, B.F Skinner, Noam Chomsky, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are provided with suitable examples. This research paper is aimed to spotlight the two most inconspicuous relationships between language acquisition and learning.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Religious Philosophy of Guru Nanak: Literary Speculation 2021-10-31T17:21:32+00:00 Dr. Anupama D. Mujumdar <p>India has been a land of diverse culture and traditions. When we say culture it includes many things like language, social customs, food habits, religion and so on. Of this religion seems to be the most influential factor in the life of an individual. It is something which lends meaning and purpose to our life. It is that which binds human beings to the Divine. And this bond can be established through the practise of Bhakti. The concept of Bhakti is an old one. It emphasises devotion to the personal God. Bhakti movement is an important development in the cultural history of India which originated in the south. The saints of Bhakti movement preached personal devotion to God as a means of attaining Salvation. They made use of local language to spread the ideology of Bhakti. Guru Nanak is one of the most influential saints of the Bhakti movement. In his teaching he incorporated ideas both from Hinduism as well as Islam. He revealed the truth of monotheism, importance of the recitation of God’s name with utmost devotion, need of a Guru for salvation. He tried to bridge the gap between the two communities of Islam and Hinduism and eradicate social problems by focusing on the truth of monotheism and the concept of equality.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The ‘Changing Status’ of Women w.r.t. Gentrified Urban Spaces of Mumbai 2021-10-31T17:27:15+00:00 Dr. Deepali Bhide <p>Reinforcement of inequality and rise in human conflict across society, culture, political economy and gender relations is a characteristic feature of globalisation which is an apparent process of development. This inequality becomes more evident in a globalising city like Mumbai because the capitalist expansion within Mumbai has been defragmented and worrisome. Girangaon in Mumbai (spread over E, F and G wards within MCGM- Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) is a case reflecting a similar inconsistency because this is a core area which has been undergoing so called urban renewal since the closure of cotton textile mills since 1980s. More livelihood opportunities in Mumbai have been created in the informal tertiary sector as compared to the formal traditional occupations. Urban poverty, income disparities and deprivations are issues which remain unaddressed.&nbsp; Women who are an important part of the urban economy and who remain behind the veils when it comes to assessment and calculation of real income are not left behind from this brunt. The present paper therefore is an attempt to understand the participation and contribution of women in Mumbai’s economy. It also tries to study whether there has been any change in the socio-economic status of women from Girangaon especially with two important processes- closure of mills and the initiation of gentrification. For this purpose a questionnaire survey was conducted in Girangaon and the collected data has been analysed qualitatively to understand the dynamics of capital and gender relations.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Scrutiny of Self in Arun Joshi’s The Strange Case of Billy Biswas 2021-11-01T04:06:00+00:00 Dr. G. Keerthi <p>An Outstanding novelist of human predicament, Arun Joshi is ranked with the great masters of contemporary Indian fiction in English. He believes that reality lies within the consciousness of isolated individuals. As he is the great writer of psychological perception, he envisions the inner crisis of the modern man in his five novels. In particular, his second novel <em>The Strange Case of Billy Biswas</em> is the apple of his eye. It portrays the story of the protagonist who is dragged by the mysterious world of the tribal society. The protagonist, Billy’s strange quest leads him to leave his position as the sole inheritor of a wealthy family and lead to live a natural life. There is no comfort in his American life as well as in his marital life too. Further, the story visualises Billy’s quest for individualism and self-identity at the cost of leaving materialistic world. This paper focuses on the clashes between the civilised world and the primitive one as well as it looks at the root of the protagonist Billy’s quest for the self.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shifting of Language Teaching Methodology from Traditional Classroom to Virtual Classroom 2021-11-01T04:25:13+00:00 Dr Parbin Sultana <p>A new paradigm in the field of education has been noticed since last few years. The educators have accepted that they have to indulge themselves in technology based education with innovative methodology to challenge the current need and to coexist in the modified world. The instructors and the learners shift from traditional method to virtual method of teaching learning by adapting the conditional role of staying at home for the pandemic of corona virus all over the world and subsequently have understood the flexibility nature of teaching learning on this way. However, this is a challenging phase to shift educational environment from contemporary traditional classroom to a technology oriented learner centred classroom. Here, the teachers need to expertise on technological use, methodology of teaching, instructional strategy, and assessment and evaluation system and so on. This paper mainly aims to focus on methodological transformation in language teaching. For this study, information is collected from internet sources, books, newspaper article, lectures, and workshops.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Shine of Pollyannaism in Maya Angelou’s Works 2021-11-01T04:58:25+00:00 Bavadharani Balan <p>The optimism in life is a pleasurable feel. The small key role in a story makes a huge difference in the universe. The hope helps to jump over the depression, failure, marginalization, etc. to reach the healthy balanced life. The Pollyannaism and <em>Still I Rise</em> holds the similar techniques for the blooming peaceful life. Thinking hopeful, spreading positivity is the major part of the two titles. Seeking good in bad and likes in dislikes are the drastic change of the upbeat personality.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Writing on the Wall and our Shortsightedness 2021-11-01T05:04:57+00:00 Savitha. G. P. <p>The <em>Silent Spring</em> by Rachel Carson, which brought the issue of pesticides to the center stage is dedicated to Albert Schweitzer, who said, “Man has lost the capacity to foresee and to forestall. He will end by destroying the Earth”. This paper will try to understand and analyse our position with regard to the prediction made by Albert Schweitzer. Are we still moving in the same direction of self-destruction or have we regained our capacity to foresee and forestall? Man’s interaction with nature has altered it in very significant ways which in turn has been affecting the life of man in unpredictable ways. &nbsp;The way forward is from adverse Anthropocene to conscious Anthropocene. Shankar’s 2018 release, Akshay Kumar and Rajnikanth starrer <em>2.0</em> warn us about the problems of radiation which will wipe away the birds from Earth before us going the same way. How the overcrowded telephone network towers and the radiation from them will wreak havoc, if not checked right away is the point of discussion in the movie. 2016 release Remo D’ Souza’s <em>A flying Jatt,</em> starring Tiger Shroff also speaks of the impending doom if we do not manage our waste properly. The pollutants which we are releasing generously into the environment are nothing but our own suicide in installments. The writing has been on the wall for long. Poornachandra Tejaswi in his novel <em>Chidambara Rahasya</em> depicts the picture of a society which ignores this writing on the wall for short term gains and this shortsightedness results in the destruction of nature, culture and the life as we know. This paper intends to study the equation between man and nature as depicted in the above mentioned movies and literature.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isolated Voices in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies 2021-11-01T09:54:13+00:00 Ms. S. Poornima <p>People living all over the world belong to different religions, follow different cultures and speak different languages. If people of one nation go to another nation for their livelihood or education, they have to adapt themselves to the changing situations and places lest they should experience untold sufferings. Life throws all a lot of challenges, both simple and complicated, and it is up to all to rise and perform, take decisions that can be sometimes satisfying, and sometimes disturbing, and walk through it as if none were affected by it. It is not an easy thing to do. It is never easy to answer his heart as the questions surface and resurfaces time and again. Life is not a bed of roses to live easily. Lahiri is an Indian by birth but she has America as her permanent dwelling place. Hence, she has faced a lot of problems as an immigrant which she tries to show in her work. Hers are perfectly placed words lining themselves into elegant sentences whose subject matter: family, mothers and daughters, assimilation, alcoholism, children, marital love and touch us all.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Critique of Twentieth Century Feminist Criticism 2021-11-01T10:14:53+00:00 Dr Vijay Nagnath Mhamane <p>Feminist criticism arose in response to developments in the field of the feminist movement. Many thinkers such as John Stuart Mill, Mary Wollstonecraft raised their voice against the injustice done to women in every sphere of life. As this gained momentum throughout the world, feminist also awakened to the depiction and representation of women in literature which is one of the influential medium of socialization and culture. They argued that woman and womanhood are not biological facts but are given social constructs. One is not born a woman, but becomes one through culture and socialization. At first, feminist criticism was reactionary in the nature in the sense that they exposed stereotypical images of women in the literature. These images of women were promulgated by the male writers. These images of women were what men think of women. Gradually, feminist criticism moved from this phase to more constructive work. They unearthed many women writers that were either suppressed or neglected by the male literary tradition. In this way, they created a separate literary tradition of women writers. Feminist critics divided this tradition in such phases as feminine phase, feminist phase and female phase. They also studied the problems faced by female creative writers. &nbsp;They used theories from post-structuralism, Marxism, psychoanalysis to study the nature of female creativity. They also realized that there is an innate difference between male and female modes of writing. Feminist critics also exposed the sexiest nature of man-made language. They also exposed phallic centrism of much of the western literary theory and criticism. They also started to study the language used by the women writers. Simon De Beauvoir, Virginia Woolf, Elaine Showalter and Juliet Mitchell are some of the feminist critics discussed in this paper.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cultural Ecological Attitudes in Gita Mehta’s A River Sutra 2021-11-03T16:48:31+00:00 Dr O. T. Poongodi <p>One of the sparkling stars in the galaxy of Indian writers, Gita Mehta is the brightest. Her novels are written with Indian perspectives and they are explorations of the tension generated by the east-west encounters. Her novel <em>A River Sutra</em> is a colourful fictional account of India that mirrors Indian history and culture. It connects Indian mythology with various depictions of love in its many aspects. It told through a pen-pusher and his encounter with six pilgrims on the banks of the Narmada. In Western Feminist studies, the woman is always portrayed with a quest for freedom from the urban exploitative society to nature. It is appealing to determine that this concept receives a new dimension in a different cultural context. In this novel, Mehta has shifted her focus from the interactions between India and the west to exploring the diversity of cultures within India. Gita Mehta uses the Narmada as the thread, which holds together the main story and the six sub-stories. The present paper discusses in detail the theory of eco-criticism and it aims at highlighting an understanding of various terms like green studies and nature studies, as well as describes in fair detail, the different subfields of eco-criticism, namely, Cultural ecology, Eco-feminism and Gyno-Ecology.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Objectives of Teaching and Interactive Learning 2021-11-03T16:56:03+00:00 Dr. C. Priyadharshini <p>An important aspect of teaching is to promote learners’ awareness and an appropriate learning strategy can enhance success with the learning task. The different types of Strategies like Memory, Cognitive, Compensation, Social Strategies and skills provide the learners with the opportunity to practice progress in their own way. The main role of the English teacher is to help students discover effective approaches to learning and to stimulate knowledge and provides kills to the learners. They must adapt various approaches to teaching in order to serve the needs of the students. Teaching methodologies define specific roles for a teacher as an analyst, curriculum developer, counselor, mentor, and a researcher. Researchers of class room interaction have developed observational systems to describe and classify patterns of student-teacher interaction. Teachers create their own roles within the classroom based on their theories of teaching and learning. A more recent model of teaching used in mainstream education, known as active teaching reflects the management and monitoring of learning as a primary role for teachers. The study highlights the ways in which the teachers and learners can collaboratively engage in developing effective approaches to interactive learning.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021