Once Upon a Time in Biafra: War Time Caucus, Hate Crime and Ethnic Violence in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun

Main Article Content

Dr Kirti Jha Kulshreshtha
Dr. Chinmay Kulshreshtha


A study of wartime literature also serves the function of documenting and preserving the stories and key experiences which the victims have witnessed through their forbearance in such events. While hate crime, caste conflicts, communal violence and ethnic violence are indispensable discourses in the study of criminal justice system, a parallel study of hate crime and ethnic violence through the kaleidoscope of contemporary Nigerian literature would be equally influencing. For any civil war, citing one cataclysmic reason is never justifiable. In the late 1960s the political and social climate in a multi- ethnic country like Nigeria was brimming with religious and tribal differences, the immediate reason that triggered the unfortunate civil war in Nigeria was ‘hate speech’ of the political leaders and military commanders.  Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a third-generation Nigerian woman writer reminisces this civil war through her novel Half of A Yellow Sun (2006) in which the scarring memoirs of genocide, war time rapes, ransacking of houses and property, mass killings, forced conscription and forced prostitution of young girls are captured with the intent to highlight the menacing minds of war driven humans. It is true that Hate crime is more destructive and dangerous when it finds such secessionist atmosphere as would ignite ethnic violence and deeper still into a full-blown civil war. Through this paper an evaluation and analyses of the hate crime during the Nigeria-Biafra Civil War would come under scrutiny through the literary promontory of Nigerian novel Half of A Yellow Sun.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Dr Kirti Jha Kulshreshtha, and Dr. Chinmay Kulshreshtha. “Once Upon a Time in Biafra: War Time Caucus, Hate Crime and Ethnic Violence in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun”. The Creative Launcher, vol. 8, no. 2, Apr. 2023, pp. 70-80, doi:10.53032/tcl.2023.8.2.10.
Research Articles


Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. Half Of A Yellow Sun. Anchor Books, 2006.

Atofarati, Abubakar A. “The Nigerian Civil War: Causes, Strategies and Lessons Learnt.” Global Security. 28th April 2005.

Birnbaum, Robert. “Interview with Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.” The Morning News. Oct 23, 2006. http://www.themorningnews.org/article/chimamandangozi-adichie.

Falola, Toyin and Matthew M. Heaton. A History of Nigeria. CUP, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511819711

Fearon, James D. “Civil War Since 1945: Some Facts and a Theory”. Presented at American Political Science Association. WDC. Sep. 2005.

Fearon, James D. and David Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War”. American Political Science Review. Vol. 97 No. 1, March 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055403000534

Jha, Kirti. “Violence Begets Violence: Curse of the Nigerian Civil War”. Fictional World of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: A Thematic Study of Select Works. Mohan Lal Sukhadia University Udaipur. 2016. Diss.

Kauffman, Chaim. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” International Security. Vol. 20, No. 4, (Spring 1996). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/isec.20.4.136

Kharoua, Mustapha. “Traumatic Realism and the Retrieval of Historical Value in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Postcolonial Text Half of A Yellow Sun” International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies. Volume 2 Issue 1 June 2015. < http://ijhcschiefeditor.wix.com/ijhcs >.

Kirk-Greene, AMH. “The Struggle for Secession 1966-70: A Personal Account of the Nigerian Civil War by N.U. Akpan; Sunset in Biafra: A Civil War Diary by Elechi Amadi; The Nigerian Civil War 1967-1970: An Annotated Bibliography by C.C. Aguolu Review by A.M.H. Kirk Greene”. The Royal African Society. 74 (294): 100-102 JSTOR 720916 January 1975 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a096546

Lipton, Sara. “Threat, Emboldenment or Both? The Effects of Political Power on Violent Hate Crimes”. Laura Dugan et al Eds 28 sept 2020 Wiley Online Library Vol 58, Issue 4 Pg 714-746(https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/13/opinion/the-words-that-killed- medieval-jews.html)2015 pg 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12259

Nayar, Pramod K. Postcolonial Literature: An Introduction. Pearson Education India: 2008.

Nixon, Charles “Self Determination; The Nigeria/Biafra Case”. World Politics. 24 (4): 473-497. Doi: 10.2307/2010453. JSTOR 2010453. (July 1972). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2010453

Nnolim, Charles E. Approaches to the African Novel: Essays in Analysis. Malthouse Ltd.,2010.

Stremlau, John J. The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War 1967-1970. Princeton University Press, 1977.

Tunca, Daria. “Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie as Chinua Achebe’s (Unruly) Literary Daughter: The Past, Present, and Future of “Adichebean” Criticism.” Research in African Literatures. Vol. 49, No. 4, Arrow of God at Fifty (Winter 2018), Indiana University Press. https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.49.4.08 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2979/reseafrilite.49.4.08