Social Exclusion: A Subaltern Perspective in Arundhati Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness




Social segregation, Hijras, Expatriate, Relegation, Agony, Disparity, Disparagement, Homophobia, Marginalization, Ethnicity, Disability


Postcolonial Indian society appears to have achieved political freedom but has yet to get social freedom. The modern, democratic Indian society is not yet free as for as the caste system, the unequal distribution of wealth, the safety and security of women, minorities and children, and so on are concerned. The term social exclusion or social marginalisation means ostracization or alienation of an individual or a community as a whole on the base of wealth, social status, caste, class, religion, gender etc. This paper offers a critique of Arundhati Roy’s second published novel The Ministry of Utmost Happiness in 2017 to understand the integration of the theme of social exclusion and subalternation in the novel. The novel is fundamentally a painful story of everyone and everything oppressed and suppressed and drifting to the margins of society by the powerful class. The narrative is dedicated to ‘The Unconsoled’ such as the Hijras, the outcasts, women, the Kashmiris, the disappeared, the displaced so on and so forth.  The novel transports us on a journey that spans many years, from the claustrophobic Old Delhi neighbourhoods to the escalating new metropolis and beyond, to the Kashmir Valley and the forests of central India, where war is concord and concord is war, and where, occasionally, normality is avowed.


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DOI: 10.53032/tcl.2022.7.6.18
Published: 2022-12-30

How to Cite

Dr Bidyut Bose, & Mohd InamUl Haq. (2022). Social Exclusion: A Subaltern Perspective in Arundhati Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness. The Creative Launcher, 7(6), 165–170.



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